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ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research InstituteICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute
(Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
Near Pahuj Dam, Gwalior Road, Jhansi - 284 003 (UP) India
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  Technology- VI: Silvo-pasture model for highly degraded/ waste lands  
 
 
 
 
Dimension:
Rainfed/ arid regions of the country have degraded land and constraints in arable farming. Animal husbandry is the main occupation of farmers after rainfed crops cultivation in these areas. Livestock is dependent on forage produced in rangeland areas. In such areas large scale grazing of animals results in quite low pasture production restriciting availability during monsoon only. To solve the above said problem Silvipasture models (MPTS + Pasture) have been developed that produce higher forage per unit area per unit time as well as round the year than open pasture.
 
  
   
Target area:
Forest area, degraded lands under rain-fed situation in semi-arid region of India (Rainfall 400-700 mm).
   
Impact:
Degraded lands of India have constraints of soil and moisture making arable farming quite difficult. Different models of Silvo-pasture systems developed at IGFRI have good production potential of forage from 5-10 t DM/ha on degraded /rangelands of the country. Silvi-pasture systems can serve the purposes of forage and firewood production and ecosystem conservation. This system support 2-4 ACU /year depending upon species of tree, pasture combinations and agro-climatic conditions. It also conserves soil moisture and reduces soil erosion as well as builds up soil in long rotation. This technology is being disseminated with line departments of forestry, soil water conservation, NGOs, Gaushalas , KVKs through NIFTD programme ( National Initiative on fodder technology demonstration) etc. The technology is being demonstrated in farmer’s field in Bundelkhand

States suitable for adoption of this technology:
A.P., Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Bundelkhand part of M.P and U.P. Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, H.P. and J&K, etc.

Establishment cost of the system:
25,000-30,000/ha.

B:C ratio: Over the period of 10 years:
1.5-2
 
Forage production:
5-10 t Dry Matter /ha/year
 
  
 
ACU supports:
2-4/year

1. Ficus based silvipasture
Zone :
Tropical &Semi arid
Rainfall:
600-700 mm/annum
Forage :
12.3 t/ha DM/ha
ACU :
3 – 4/ha Grass- Chrysopogon fulvus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum maximum Legume- Clitoria ternatea and Stylosanthes seabrana
Fodder availability
From grasses and legume- July to December (65-70 %) Tree leaves- March to June (30-35 %)
2-4/year

2. Hardwickia based Silvi-pasture
Zone :
Semi arid
Rainfall:
600-700 mm/annum
Forage :
7-9 t DM/ha
ACU :
2- 2.5/ha Grass- Chrysopogon fulvus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum maximum Legume- Stylosanthes seabrana
Fodder availability
From grasses and legume- July to December (85-90 %) Tree leaves- March to June (10-15 %)
2-4/year

3. Morus based Silvipasture
Zone :
Semi arid
Rainfall:
600-700 mm/annum
Forage :
11-13 t DM/ha
ACU :
Grass- Chrysopogon fulvus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum maximum Legume- Clitoria ternatea and Stylosanthes seabrana
Fodder availability
From grasses and legume- July to December (65-70 %) Tree leaves- March to June and September to November (30-35 %)
2-4/year

4. Acacia based silvipasture
Zone :
Semi arid
Rainfall:
600-700 mm/annum
Forage :
9-11 t DM/ha
ACU :
2.5-3/ha Grass- Chrysopogon fulvus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum maximum Legume- Clitoria ternatea and Stylosanthes seabrana
Fodder availability
From grasses and legume - July to December (92-95 %) Tree leaves- November to December (5-8 %)


Technology package (Silvo-pasture model for highly degraded/ waste lands)

Field preparation & digging Tree SpacingPlanting of tree saplings Sowing/Planting of grasses and legumeWeeding Fertilizer to grass Harvesting
Pre monsoon, 45X45x45 cm 5 x 5 m (For tractor based operation)During the monsoon Interspaces intercropped with pasture combinations at 50 cm row- to- row and legume between 2 rows of grasses.One weeding beneficial for establishment of pasture 20 Kg N, 30 Kg P and 30 kg K /ha. Application of Nitrogen in split during July and August Harvesting of pasture 2-3 time(From September to December) as per monsoon and growth of pasture up to initial 5 years follow cut and carry system. After attaining growth of tree allowed grazing of small ruminantAfter 3rd year during lean period- 20-40 % lopping-


Varieties of Grass and Legume

Grass Chrysopogon fulvus Cenchrus ciliaris Panicum maximum Legume Clitoria ternatea Stylosanthes hamata Stylosanthes seabrana
Variety GAUD-1 Bundel Anjan-1,CAZRI-75 Hamil,Bundel Guinnea-1, Bundel Guinne-2, IGFRI-10.        
     
   
     
 
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